Derbent - the oldest Djuma-mosque in North Caucasus. 'Gate of Gates') simply as "al-Bāb" (Arabic: ٱلْبَاب, lit. In the 19th century, the city passed from Iranian into Russian hands by the Treaty of Gulistan of 1813.. And a mosque again. Russian officials acknowledge that grinding poverty in places like … Derbent Travel Guide; All Derbent Hotels; Derbent Hotel Deals; Last Minute Hotels in Derbent; By Hotel Type. Derbent can claim to be the oldest occupied city in Russia, and it is the southernmost Russian city, lying only 50 km (31 miles) from the border with Azerbaijan. In the 10th century, with the collapse of the Arab Caliphate, Derbent became the capital of an emirate. Until the 4th century AD, it was part of Caucasian Albania which was a satrap of the Achaemenid Persian Empire, and is traditionally identified with Albana, the capital. , The main ethnic groups are (2002 Census):. A mosque. Derbent is the southern-most city in Russia, and over 1,500km south of Moscow. The first Sasanian attempt to seal off the road along the Caspian seacoast at Darband by means of a mud-brick wall has been dated in the reign of Yazdegerd II (438–457 AD)..  A similar name, also meaning "Iron Gate", was used by Turkic peoples, in the form of "Demirkapi".. Maskut (also known as Mazkut, Muskur, Mazkat, Mashkut, or Maskat) is a historical region located along the western coast of the Caspian Sea, laying on today's republics of Azerbaijan and Dagestan (Russia).. They killed 1 person and injured 12. Historically, this position allowed the rulers of Derbent to control land traffic between the Eurasian Steppe and the Middle East. Over the centuries the city changed hands often. Canals of St Petersburg, Russia As visitors gaze upon the canals that criss-cross through the village of St Petersburg, many are unaware that they are witnessing paths carved in the name of trade and westernization. Media in category "Derbent wall" The following 10 files are in this category, out of 10 total. (. The location is central (modern Cinema is next door - there is a "russian" KFC and burger restaurant). The view of Derbent is great and the actual fortress itself is very well taken care of. Крепость Нарын-кала. In the 1st century BCE, Derbent became incorporated in the kingdom of Caucasian Albania, probably as its northernmost possession. On the history of research),” in Vostochnye istochniki po istorii Dagestana (Eastern sources on the history of Dāḡestān), Makhachkala, 1980, pp. The educational infrastructure includes a university as well as several technical schools. Hardliner Islamic groups shot tourists in 2015. «О внесении изменений в некоторые законодательные акты Республики Дагестан». In the middle of the 20th century, Jews constituted about a third of the population of Derbent. «О статусе городского округа с внутригородским делением "Город Махачкала", статусе и границах внутригородских районов в составе городского округа с внутригородским делением "Город Махачкала" и о внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Республики Дагестан». The Derbent Fortifications is one the most popular tourist attractions in the city of Derbent and the Republic of Dagestan. (The city of Kūmīs of five towers Aži Dahag made it his own harem. The name of the defensive complex Naryn-Kala (the citadel and the Derbent wall) means “narrow gate”.  The Jewish traveler Benjamin of Tudela mentions Jews living in Derbent in the 12th century, and Christian traveler Wilhelm of Rubruquis writes about a Jewish community in the 13th century. It lies on the federal highway M29 (Rostov-na-Donu - Baku). Think Again, Moscow Says", "Bitter Choices: Loyalty and Betrayal in the Russian Conquest of the North Caucasus", "Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent", Правительство РД — Дербент — Муниципальные районы и городские округа, "Saving Another Dying Jewish Language Before It's Too Late", "После покушения на раввина евреи Дагестана живут в страхе", Derbent as Russia's Oldest City? Historical attractions include the baths, the cisterns, the old cemeteries, the caravanserai, the 18th-century Khan's mausoleum, as well as several mosques. The modern city is built near the western shores of the Caspian Sea, south of the Rubas River, on the slopes of the Tabasaran Mountains (part of the Bigger Caucasus range). After the Arab conquest of Persia various Arabic inscriptions were also made on the walls. There was also a second Armenian church, and two Armenian schools which served the Armenian community, which numbered about 3,000 in the census of 1913. I stayed at the Hotel Elit for one night in July 2015. During periods when the Sasanians were distracted by war with the Byzantines or protracted battles with the Hephthalites in the eastern provinces, the northern tribes succeeded in advancing into the Caucasus. Derbent experienced a period of considerable prosperity in the first three centuries of the Common Era, but the resumption of nomad raids in the 4th century (the Alans and later the Huns) meant that it quickly reverted to its role as a frontier post and a "symbolic boundary between nomadic and agrarian ways of life". M. S. Saidov, ed., Katalog arabskikh rukopiseĭ Instituta IYaL Dagestanskogo filiala AN SSSR (Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the H.L.L. Derbent occupies the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian Steppe to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. The Sassanid fortress does not exist any more, as the famous Derbent fortress as it stands today was built from the 12th century onward. In the reign of Yazdgird, the son of Šabuhr made it during the invasion of the Čōl, at the boundary of the Gruzinian Guard.)". Hotels near Architectural Complex Citadel Naryn-Kala; Hotels near Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent; Hotels near Derbent Dzhuma-Mosque A prison. Peter I conquered Derbent during the Persian campaign, but later it went to Persia again, and finally joined the Russian Empire only in 1813. The first mention of Jews in Derbent in modern times is by a German traveler, Adam Olearius, in the 17th century. Nadir Shah of Persia forced many Jews to adopt Islam. The Fortifications of Derbent (also transcribed as Darband) are one of the fortified defense lines built by the Persian Sasanian Empire to protect the eastern passage of the Caucasus Mountains (the "Caspian Gates") against the attacks of the nomadic peoples of the Pontic–Caspian steppe. Furthermore, Ibrahim also greatly increased the limits of his state. Despite that, the emirate outlived its rival and continued to flourish at the time of the Mongol invasion in 1239. According to Arab historians, Derbent, with population exceeding 50,000, was the largest city of the 9th century Caucasus. Already in Classical Antiquity, the settlement of Derbent and its wider region (the "Caspian Gates") were known for their strategic location between the Caspian Sea and the eastern foothills of the Caucasus Mountains, separating the settled regions south of the Caucasus from the nomadic peoples dominating the Pontic–Caspian steppe to the north.  'The Gate') or as "Bāb al-Hadid" (Arabic: بَاب ٱلْحَدِيد, lit. Закон №6 от 13 января 2005 г. The chief rabbi of Derbent, Obadiah Isakov, was badly injured in an assassination attempt on July 25, 2013, sparking concerns of further acts of anti-Semitism targeting the Jewish community. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Дагестан», в ред. This emirate often fought losing wars with the neighboring Christian state of Sarir, allowing Sarir to manipulate Derbent's politics on occasion. , The 20-meter-high (66 ft) walls with thirty north-looking towers are believed to belong to the time of Kavadh's son, Khosrau I, who also directed the construction of Derbent's fortress.. Derbent's location on a narrow, three-kilometer strip of land in the North Caucasus between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus mountains is strategic in the entire Caucasus region. People began to settle in the territory of Dagestan more than a million years ago (the sites of ancient people Aynikab 1-2, Muhkay 1-2, Gegalashur 1-3, Rugudzha). Architectural Complex Citadel Naryn-Kala: The witness of great history - See 104 traveler reviews, 452 candid photos, and great deals for Derbent, Russia, at Tripadvisor. Institute of the Dāḡestān branch of the A.N. padxwadayīh [ī] yazdgird ī šabuhrān kard andar tāzišn ī čōl wērōy-pahr [ī] an ālag. The length …  In 1989, there were 13,000 Jews in the city, but most emigrated after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Excavations on the eastern side of the Caspian Sea, opposite to Derbent, revealed the Great Wall of Gorgan, the eastern counterpart to the wall and fortifications of Derbent.  For background see Russian conquest of the Caucasus#Caspian Coast. In 2003, UNESCO included the old part of Derbent with traditional buildings in the World Heritage List, highlighting the following sites: Derbent Wall- a double wall built in t… At the beginning of our era, part of the present Dagestan was in Caucasian … The Soviet novelist Yury Krymov named a fictional motor tanker after the city in his book The Tanker "Derbent". The oldest mosque is the Juma Mosque, built over a 6th-century Christian basilica; it has a 15th-century madrasa. In the 14th century, Derbent was occupied by Timur's armies. The walls of that settlement were some 2 metres (6.6 ft) high and maximally 7 metres (23 ft) thick, with evidence of repeated destruction and rebuilding throughout the period. To the south lies the seaward extremity of the Caucasian wall (fifty metres long), otherwise known as Alexander's Wall, blocking the narrow pass of the Iron Gate or Caspian Gates (Portae Athanae or Portae Caspiae). Derbent's Jewry suffered during the wars in the 18th century. Derbent is the oldest cultural center of Dagestan Republic, the birthplace of its spiritual and material culture, it is where art, art crafts, written language, values of Islam and other world religions spread from. Derbent is well served by public transport, with its own harbor, a railway going south to Baku, and the Baku to Rostov-on-Don road. The impression of antiquity evoked by these fortifications led many Arab historians to connect them with Khosrow I and to include them among the seven wonders of the world. During the Khazars' reign, they played an important part in the life of the city. Architectural Complex Citadel Naryn-Kala: 5000 years of history - See 108 traveler reviews, 455 candid photos, and great deals for Derbent, Russia, at Tripadvisor. Movses Kagankatvatsi left a graphic description of the sack of Derbent by the hordes of Tong Yabghu of the Western Turkic Khaganate in 627. The rulers of Shirvan, called the Shirvanshahs, had attempted, and on numerous times, succeeded, to conquer Derbend since the 18th Shirvanshah king, Afridun I, was appointed as the governor of the city. This is an incredible site over 15 centuries old, set right btw the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mtns. Russia.  In fact, a deliberate policy of “Persianizing” Derbent and the eastern Caucasus in general can be traced over many centuries, from Khosrow I to the Safavid shahs Ismail I, and ʿAbbās the Great. There are also various Middle Persian (Pahlavi) inscriptions on the walls of the fortress and Northern/Southern walls inside the city. He conquered the city of Derbend in 1437. Derbent is the southernmost city in Russia, occupying the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. ), In the 1886 population counting of the Dagestan Oblast of Russia's Caucasus Viceroyalty, of the 15,265 inhabitants Derbent had, 8,994 (58,9%) were of Iranian descent (Russian: персы) thus comprising an absolute majority in the town..  As a municipal division, the City of Derbent is incorporated as Derbent Urban Okrug. The region is named after the ancient Iranian-speaking tribes of the Massagetae people, who inhabited this region from around the 1st century AD to the 7th century AD. Дагестан. Jews began to settle in Derbent in ancient times. 564. Map of the Sasanian fortifications at Derbent, by Roderich von Erckert, The citadel of Naryn-Kala and the walls of Derbent, Section of the "mountain wall" of Dagh-Bary, Background and first fortifications at Derbent, Creation of the Sasanian fortification complex, BBC: Dagestan gunmen kill one at south Russia fortress, UNESCO: Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fortifications_of_Derbent&oldid=989635833, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 November 2020, at 03:36. Derbent's location on a narrow, three-kilometer strip of land in the North Caucasus between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus mountains is strategic in the entire Caucasus region. of the U.S.S.R.) I, Moscow, 1977. Derbent is derived from Persian "Darband" (Persian: دربند, lit. Derbent is located in Russia’s Dagestan region, on the western coast of the Caspian Sea. The room is large with equipped with new furniture. Population: 119,200 (2010 Census); 101,031 (2002 Census); 78,371 (1989 Census).. It is the center of Russian brandy production. The city has a well-preserved citadel (Narin-kala), enclosing an area of 4.5 hectares (11 acres), enclosed by strong walls. In the early 16th century the kingdom of Shirvan was conquered by Shah Ismail of the Safavid dynasty. As mentioned by the Encyclopedia Iranica, ancient Iranian language elements were absorbed into the everyday speech of the population of Dagestan and Derbent especially during the Sassanian era, and many remain current. That's according to the city's acting mayor Rustambek Pirmagomedov, who has pointed the finger at the federal government for neglecting Derbent's fortifications, in what he called a "big emergency for the city.". The walls, reaching to the sea, date from the 6th century, Sassanid dynasty period. The city is home to machine building, food, textile, fishing and fishery supplies, construction materials and wood industries. The Sassanids had also brought Armenians from Syunik to help protect the pass from invaders; as Arab rule weakened in the region at the end of the ninth century, the Armenians living there were able to establish a kingdom, which lasted until the early years of the thirteenth century.  Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. It is also the southernmost city in Russia, and the second-most important city of Dagestan. History of Derbent and the millennia old historical and cultural relations it has with Iran. Derbent became a strong military outpost and harbour of the Sassanid Empire. There has been a fortress here since very ancient times and sections of the current structure date back to the 6th c ad. Закона №43 от 30 апреля 2015 г. Until the Russians conquered Derbent in the 1800s, the wall remained a crucial point in the city's military security. A large portion of the walls and several watchtowers still remain in reasonable shape.  The chronicler Movses Kaghankatvatsi wrote about "the wondrous walls, for whose construction the Persian kings exhausted our country, recruiting architects and collecting building materials with a view of constructing a great edifice stretching between the Caucasus Mountains and the Great Eastern Sea." Том 1", http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2018/bul_dr/mun_obr2018.rar, https://web.archive.org/web/20180726010024/http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2018/bul_dr/mun_obr2018.rar, "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек", "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров", Derbent - Russia’s oldest city: 5,000 and counting, "Derbent as Russia's Oldest City? Derbent wall (10 F) Media in category "Derbent Fortress" The following 164 files are in this category, out of 164 total. During the Persian Expedition of 1796, Derbent was stormed by Russian forces under General Valerian Zubov, but the Russians were forced to retreat due to internal political issues, making it fall under Persian rule again.  Due to its strategic location, over the course of history, the city changed ownership many times, particularly among the Persian, Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms. Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования.  According to the account in the later "Darband-nāma", after construction of the fortifications Khosrow I “moved much folk here from Persia”, relocating about 3,000 families from the interior of Persia in the city of Derbent and neighboring villages. On the cultural front, there is a Lezgin drama theater (named after S. Stalsky). māniš [ī] *pārsīgān ānōh būd. The only other practicable crossing of the Caucasus ridge was over the Darial Gorge. The Derbenid dynasty, being a cadet dynasty of Shirvan, inherited the throne of Shirvan in the 15th century. Derbent has a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSk). Опубликован: "Дагестанская правда", №8, 15 февраля 2005 г. one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the World, Russian conquest of the Caucasus#Caspian Coast, List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia, "База данных показателей муниципальных образований", "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. The Persian name for the city came into use at the end of the 5th or the beginning of the 6th century AD, when the city was re-established by Kavadh I of the Sassanid dynasty of Persia, but Derbent was probably already in the Sasanian sphere of influence as a result of the victory over the Parthians and the conquest of Caucasian Albania by Shapur I, the second shah of the Sassanid Persians. Derbent's star attraction is the sprawling hilltop Naryn-Kala Citadel complex, which boasts impressive, powerful stone towers and walls. Built in the 6th century during the reign of Persian emperor Khosrow I and maintained by various later Arab, Turkish and Persian regimes, the fortifications comprise three distinct elements: the citadel of Naryn-Kala at Derbent, the twin long walls connecting it with the Caspian Sea in the east, and the "mountain wall" of Dagh-Bary, running from Derbent to the Caucasus foothills in the west.
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